For another, they may inherit whatever genetic or biological vulnerabilities laid the groundwork for a parental addiction. Research suggests that when a person learns something while under the influence of a drug, it is possible that they will not be able to retrieve what they learned later, when the person is in a sober state—there simply will not be enough retrieval cues available to trigger the recall. This information processing framework not only has tremendous implications for how individuals function when taking psychotropic substances, but also how they often have to re-learn many things once they enter into recovery or quit using after a period of regular use. A person might use a drug for the first time and enjoy the feelings it creates, which is a positive reinforcement for the behavior. Similarly, the person might find that the drug decreases a negative feeling like pain, low mood, or anxiety.

  • It is recognized throughout modern medicine that a host of biological and non-biological factors give rise to disease; understanding the biological pathophysiology is critical for understanding etiology and informing treatment.
  • It was not so much talking as doing things together, like football or climbing or going to a concert.
  • In both cases, addiction would be understood as an act of rebellion against castration, by self-administering an extra quota of jouissance (i.e., plus de jouir) with substance use (Bazan & Detandt, 2013; Lacan, 1969; Loose, 2002).
  • Construing a universally accepted definition for addiction has been a controversial matter since deliberations arose over the first documented cases of substance abuse in the 17th century (Crocq, 2007).
  • The Spiritual Model is grounded in the belief that addiction can be understood as a manifestation of existential concerns, such as the search for meaning, purpose, and connection.

2. Addiction: a behavioural disorder

For such analyses, registration status must be made transparent in the manuscript, and authors must follow guidelines about data transparency provided below. The article(s) reporting the primary outcomes, and the findings, must be cited in the manuscript. In addition to full-length research papers and brief reports reporting novel findings, the journal publishes registered reports, negative findings, replications, commentaries, and reviews.

Similar content being viewed by others

psychological model of addiction

Every attempt will be made to review manuscripts rapidly and to keep publication lag at a minimum. The opinions and statements published are the responsibility of the authors, and such opinions and statements do not necessarily reflect the policies of the publisher or of Division 50 or the views of the editor. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies. Depressive agents such as sedatives and tranquilizers are widely used medically to combat stress, anxiety, and sleep disorders, but NIDA reports that 3.5 to 5 percent of the population uses tranquilizers and sleeping pills nonmedically.

  • And still others opt for clinical-based recovery through the services of credentialed professionals.
  • Mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, may increase [29], and it may be difficult to maintain social relationships, everyday parenting responsibilities and work routines [18, 34].
  • Eventually, most individuals with an addiction reach a more mature and realistic psychological state, in which defenses may be more stable and the individual less threatened by the internal and external worlds (see depressive position in Klein, 1946).
  • By addressing these underlying spiritual and existential issues, the Spiritual Model suggests that individuals can find healing and recovery from addiction.

A Psychodynamic Way of Understanding Addiction

Hence, all current in vivo models of addiction have advantages and limitations (see Table 1). Traditionally, in many other research themes, in vitro models can be used to allow simplistic and workable investigations (often before progression to in vivo studies). The issue within the addiction research setting, and neuroscience generally, is that in vitro modelling of complex neurological disorders presents with complications itself. The neuroplasticity of the brain, its ability to shape and reshape itself in response to the environment, is what enables human beings to survive and thrive under the many dynamic circumstances of real life. The proof that addiction can be unlearned neurally and behaviorally, experts say, is that most addicts recover, eventually.

  • Brain imaging studies help explain how drug cues biologically narrow focus on the substance of abuse, motivate the drive to get it, and impair rational decision-making—brain changes that make addiction a self-perpetuating condition.
  • Dopamine is released in response to sex, accomplishment, winning, and other positive experiences, creating the sensation of reward and motivating the desire for repetition of the experience, but the dopamine response to drugs like heroin and cocaine is especially fast and intense.
  • Bickel describesEpisodic Future Thinking (EFT), a developing intervention intended to foster agreater valuation of future events.
  • By considering these multiple dimensions, the Biopsychosocial Model offers a more nuanced and holistic perspective on addiction, recognizing that no single factor can fully account for the development or maintenance of addictive behaviors.

In conclusion, the Biopsychosocial Model of addiction offers a comprehensive and integrative perspective on the complex interplay of factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors. By recognizing the importance of biological, psychological, and social factors, this model provides a valuable framework Top 5 Advantages of Staying in a Sober Living House for developing personalized and evidence-based treatment approaches that address the multiple dimensions of addiction. Ultimately, the Biopsychosocial Model highlights the need for a holistic understanding of addiction and a multifaceted approach to care in order to effectively support individuals on their path to recovery.

Increased Comorbidity Between Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Sexual Identity Minorities

psychological model of addiction

While treatments exist, the need for more effective treatments is clear, especially those focused on decreasing relapse rates. The negative affective state, hyperkatifeia, that accompanies longer-term abstinence is an important treatment target that should be emphasized in current practice as well as in new treatment development. In addition to developing a better understanding of the neurobiology of addictions and abstinence, it is necessary to ensure that there is equitable access to currently available treatments and treatment programs. This depends on the recognition that health care inequities and societal barriers are major contributors to the continued high prevalence of substance use disorders, the individual suffering they inflict, and the huge toll that they incur at a societal level.

Manuscript preparation

  • In conclusion, the Disease Model of addiction has provided a valuable framework for understanding the biological basis of substance use disorders and has contributed to the development of more effective, evidence-based treatment strategies.
  • Equations composed with the built-in Word 2007/Word 2010 equation support are converted to low-resolution graphics when they enter the production process and must be rekeyed by the typesetter, which may introduce errors.
  • When an accepted paper is published, these sentences will be used in dissemination by the journal, including e-mail alerts, the Society of Addiction Psychology website, and on social media (Twitter and Facebook).
  • Patterns of addiction characteristics such as daily drug use, bidirectionality of social factors, and drug-seeking or drug-taking behaviour depending on experimental conditions can be determined within the research setting (Venniro et al., 2016).
  • Although our principal focus is on the brain disease model of addiction, the definition of addiction itself is a source of ambiguity.

Craving is a deep desire for the effects of a drug orchestrated through crosstalk between specific parts of the brain that dampen the ability to exert control over impulses. • the hippocampus, seat of memory; under the influence of dopamine, the memory of an expected reward results in overactivation of the reward and motivation circuits and decreased activity in the cognitive control centers of the prefrontal cortex. At first glance, the fact that addiction shifts the way the brain works lends credibility to the idea of a disease. However, the brain alterations reflect the normal capacity of the brain to change in response to experience.